ISSN 2409-5834

Comparative Estimation of Cadmium and Lead Levels between Cigarette and Hookah Smokers

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Layla Mahmood Saeed,Alaa Abd AlZhraa Kazem


The current study was suggested to detect level of cadmium and lead in smokers (Cigarette and hookah), Cd and Pb were detected in blood using atomic absorption, The results of the present study show that the Cigarette smokers were higher than non-smokers (82.75, 17.24 %) respectively, 55.17% was hookah smokers and 44.82% non-hookah smokers, 41.37% of study population Cigarette and hookah smoking together, The heavy metals represented by Cd and Pb, levels were detected in both groups, current output recorded non-significant differences in Cd and Pb (p 0.889, 0.336), also non-sig in age and BMI.

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