Sergey D. Batoev
FSAEI HE I.M. Sechenov First MSMU MOH Russia (Sechenov University)
8 Trubetskaya St., building 2, Moscow 119991, Russia
The government’s incorporation of the vast territory of the Transbaikal region did not initially involve broad socioeconomic development of this region. Gradually, it became clearly understood that for the successful development of the economically advantageous territory it was necessary to solve a number of issues related to the organization of public health care, in particular for women and children. Military and economic measures alone would not ensure the social wellbeing of both the indigenous population and Transbaikal’s new arrivals. The indigenous population’s traditional way of life, the confessional diﬀerences between those living in the territory and the severe climatic and geographic conditions slowed the spread of public medicine in this region. The constant shortage of qualiﬁed medical personnel, the small number of medical institutions and serious ﬁnancial diﬃculties exacerbated the diﬃcult situation. The ﬁrst measures taken in the social policy ﬁeld concerned the foundation of the Irkutsk Order of Public Charity in March 1784, but they were not successful in any serious way. State medical care remained inaccessible, therefore the population continued to mainly use folk and Tibetan medicine methods. A deﬁnite turning point was observed in the middle of the 19th century. It was then that the ﬁrst children’s shelters and the ﬁrst obstetric institutions for female prisoners appeared. However, it was only at the beginning of the 20th century that obstetric and gynecological hospital beds were introduced in the city hospital in the regional center in Chita. The author of the article notes that for two centuries, during which the territory of Transbaikal was part of the Russian Empire, there were some positive changes in the provision of medical care, including medical care for women and children. Signiﬁcant ﬁnancial investment and highly qualiﬁed personnel were required for the development of medicine in pre-revolutionary Transbaikal. Attempts by society, including medical organizations, to inﬂuence the existing system of medical care without a legislative base and corresponding government support were doomed to failure. There was a need for a radical transformation of health care, including in the ﬁeld of women’s and children’s health.
Keywords: Obstetrics, Children’s Shelter, Maternal, Infant mortality, Midwife