History of Medicine


An Open Access Journal

The origin and development of Russian cosmetology

DOI: 10.17720/2409-5834.v6.3.2019.07g

Andrey A. Martynov1
Anna V. Vlasova2
1State Research Center of Dermatovenerology and Cosmetology, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation
3 Korolenko St., building 3, Moscow 107076, Russia
2FSAEI HE I.M. Sechenov First MSMU MOH Russia (Sechenov University)
8 Trubetskaya St., building 2, Moscow 119991, Russia

This article presents the main stages of the development of cosmetological care to the population of the Russian Federation. It’s indicated that the formation of cosmetology took place actively on the basis of dermatovenereology, and its isolation into a separate speciality, in fact, merely completed a prolonged stage of development. The first Russian dermatologists and venereologists appeared in the 1860s. In relation to this period, we can talk about the emergence of an independent and original domestic school of dermatovenereology. The first scientific and practical centre of cosmetology in Russia – Dr. Ostroumov’s Institute of Medical Cosmetology – was founded in 1908. The principal translated foreign works on skin and venereal diseases were published at the same time. After the October Revolution, the issues of cosmetology and the circulation of cosmetic medicines began to be strictly controlled by the state. In the early 1960s, the Ministry of Health of the USSR set the task of creating a system under which medical cosmetological care would be provided in the venereal and skin dispensaries of each regional centre. In the early 1990s, the Ministry of Health of the USSR took some measures to develop cosmetological care. In particular, the regulations on the cosmetology clinic, as well as on the specialist doctors and leaders of such clinics, were approved. At the same time, normalisation of the provision of cosmetological care was carried out, including staffing standards and specialists’ workload. According to the authors, the isolation of a separate medical speciality, which was largely facilitated by the need to ensure effective state control of the quality of medical services, is a specific feature of the Russian model of cosmetological care.

Keywords: history of medicine, skin, dermatovenereology, cosmetology, cosmetologist


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