ISSN 2409-5834

Toxoplasma gondii; PCR; Cancer; Kirkuk; IgG. ,

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Zaid Abdulhussein ,Mohammed Abbood Al-Maliky ,Riyam Haleem ,Raina Ehsan ,Tuqa Shihan ,Zaid Adil


Adequate anchoring is frequently difficult to achieve in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopaedics, particularly because many of the numerous methods established for enhancing anchorage rely on patient cooperation. The advent of skeletal anchorage with mini-screw implants, which is extensively employed in orthodontic treatments for increasing the border of tooth movement and has no patient compliance restrictions, has been a significant advancement in orthodontic therapy in recent years. The mini screw implant is only intended to be used as a temporary anchorage device. During space closure, it employs both direct and indirect anchorage. Direct anchorage is the movement of teeth utilizing orthodontic micro screw implants, whereas indirect anchorage is the stabilization of specific teeth in the dental arch and subsequent use of these stabilized anchors to move other teeth.

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