History of Medicine


An Open Access Journal

An Overview of Extensively Drug-resistant Salmonella Typhi from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Pakistan

Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Hamdard University of Medicine and Dentistry Karachi Pakistan.
Asma Bilal
Registrar Pediatrics, Prime Hospital Dubai Garhoud UAE.
Kausar Keerio
Senior Registrar Pediatrics, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro Pakistan
Kanwal Shaikh
Paeds Emergency Incharge, National Medical Centre Karachi Pakistan.
Muhammad Tariq
Consultant Peadiatrician, Pakistan Institute of Medical sciences Islamabad Pakistan.
Muhammad Aslam Chandio
Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Department of Pediatric Medicine, Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical College Lyari Karachi Pakistan


Objective: The study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of multi drug resistant (MDR) and extended drug resistant (XDR) S. Typhi in a tertiary care hospital. Background: The MDR and XDR cases of S. Typhi causing typhoid fever have been significantly increased in Pakistan, just taking Hyderabad alone out of several cities in Pakistan, more than 800 cases of XDR typhoid were identified in year 2016-17, which labeled the whole region as endemic for typhoid. Study Design: A retrospective study. Place and Duration: This study was conducted in Hamdard University of Medicine and Dentistry Karachi from September 2022 to September 2023 Methodology: We included 21 of patients who tested positive for XDR Salmonella Typhi on blood culture test. The isolates were tested for the susceptibility of chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, ampicillin, azithromycin and ceftriaxone. The disk diffusion method detected the production of Extended-spectrum beta- lactamases (ESBL). Beside drug resistant, age and genders was recorded. Data was entered and analyzed using SPS version 26.0 Results: There were total 479 patients who tested positive with S. Typhi. Out of the 479 total cases, 21 cases were identified with blood culture-proven XDR S. Typhi. There were 12 (57.14%) males and 9 (42.86%) females. Salmonellae Typhi was seen in 479 cases. Amongst these 479 cases, 279 (58.25%) were Multi drug resistant and 21 (4.38%) were extremely drug resistant. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the presence of XDR S. typhi in the given city. Surveillance studies are essential at all levels to assess risk and control this illness.

Keywords: Extensively Drug-Resistant Salmonella Typhi, Drug Resistance, Pakistan, Multidrug Resistant ,


From 2021

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I.M. Sechenov

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