History of Medicine


An Open Access Journal

Study for Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Thulium (III) Ion Using new Azo derivative And It̓s Thermodynamic Functions

Suad Torki Abd-Al abbas
Department of Chemistry, University of Kerbala, Iraq
Alaa Frak Hussain
Department of Chemistry, University of Kerbala, Iraq


The research contains two parts , The first part  contained the process of synthesis a new azo derivative called 3-(4-(dimethylamino)phenyl)diazenyl)-2-hydroxy-5-sulfobenzoic acid  from diazonium salt pairs of  (N1,N1-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamine dihydrochloride) with 2-hydroxy-5-sulfobenzoic acid dihydrate , The reagent Chemical Formula (C15H15N3O6S) and the molecular weight was (365.36 g/mol)  , The reagent powder has greenish color , The pure reagent melting point is ( 183-185 °C)  , It is soluble in alcoholic solvent like ethanol absolute  , the reagent characterizes by many spectroscopic methods  (UV-Visible, FT-IR, mas spectrum  13CNMR and 1HNMR). The second part of the research is development an extraction process for Thulium (III) by liquid –liquid extraction and using the new azo reagent as ligand to form new complex, Many and different parameters on the extraction and distribution ratio were study like the acidity of medium, shaking time, the organic solvents polarity, the foreign ions effected, salting-out, redox agent , concentration effect of ( metal and reagent) , and the temperature effect. The thermodynamic functions values were determine (ΔH, ΔG, ΔS), (Job’s and Molar ratio) methods was using to explained the complex extracted stoichiometry and it was found that the complex was (M:L) (1:3) , Then the complex stability constant was calculated by using mole ratio method .

Keywords: New azo (DPDBA) , Thulium (III) ion , Extraction. ,


From 2021

The Journal is Published Twice a Year.

Founders of the journal

I.M. Sechenov

For Authors