History of Medicine


An Open Access Journal

Effects Of Smoking on Men Fertility in Kirkuk City-Iraq

Ali Fadhil Alnajjar
Assist. Prof. Dr, Department of anatomy, college of Medicine, University of Kirkuk/Iraq.
Aso Sulaiman Qahraman
Lecturer, Infertility center, Azadi teaching hospital, Kirkuk health directorate/Iraq.
Ayad Abdulkaliq Ismael
Lecturer Department of anatomy, college of Medicine, University of Kirkuk/Iraq.


Introduction And Aim

Numerous studies have identified the effect of tobacco smoking on male fertility where seminal fluid quantity and quality were investigated in different studies including patients with a history of infertility with conflicting results. Although there was much data on infertility in other countries, little exist on infertility in Iraq, especially in Kirkuk city. To study the effects of cigarette smoking on the seminal fluid quality in infertile male smokers in comparison with nonsmokers in Kirkuk city-Iraq. A review study of 250 infertile couples with the malefactor of infertility smokers and nonsmokers from January 2015-September 2018.

Materials And Methods

Samples of 250 including the smoker and nonsmoker males with abnormal semen fluid analysis. The analysis was carried in Azadi teaching hospital –infertility consultant center, private clinics, international IVF center.


The results showed that majority of infertile at age 26- 35 years and 85.6% of them have primary infertility, and about 65.6% of patients had a history of infertility period between one and five years. About 144 (57.6%) nonsmokers and about 106 (42.4%) were smokers. The majority of sperms abnormalities in total were azoospermia with 85(34%) infertile. High percentages of Oligoasthenoteratospermia, asthenoteratospermia and Oligoteratospermia were found in smoker participants which mean that smoking has obvious teratogenicity on sperms. There was a disturbance of reproductive hormones showing an increase of FSH, LH, Prolactin hormones but there was no increase in testosterone in all cases smokers and nonsmokers.


Decrease sperm count and an increase in the number of morphological defects of spermatozoa is directly related to Smoking. Teratospermia showed to be higher in smokers whereas oilgo and azoospermia were higher in the non-smokers.

Keywords: Smoking and infertility; Teratospermia, Male infertility, Azoospermia, Spermatogenesis. ,


From 2021

The Journal is Published Twice a Year.

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I.M. Sechenov

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