History of Medicine


An Open Access Journal

Comparative Estimation of Cadmium and Lead Levels between Cigarette and Hookah Smokers

Layla Mahmood Saeed
Ministry of Education /the third Education Alkharh/Bagdad, Iraq
Alaa Abd AlZhraa Kazem
Ministry of education/Babylon Education director/Iraq


The current study was suggested to detect level of cadmium and lead in smokers (Cigarette and hookah), Cd and Pb were detected in blood using atomic absorption, The results of the present study show that the Cigarette smokers were higher than non-smokers (82.75, 17.24 %) respectively, 55.17% was hookah smokers and 44.82% non-hookah smokers, 41.37% of study population Cigarette and hookah smoking together, The heavy metals represented by Cd and Pb, levels were detected in both groups, current output recorded non-significant differences in Cd and Pb (p 0.889, 0.336), also non-sig in age and BMI. In Cigarette smokers significant elevation in Pb in smokers (p 0.03), non-significant elevation in Cd level in non-smokers, the age and BMI also non-sig changes, also non-sig differences observed in the heavy metals, age and BMI of individuals use Cigarette and hookah smoking together The correlation between Cd and age, BMI and Pb in smokers (Cigarette, hookah and smoking together), Different associations were observed among study variables in study groups Cd was an inverse association with age in smokers but positive association in non-smoker. An Inverse association with BMI in Cigarette smokers, non- hookah smokers and non -Cigarette +hookah smokers. The association Cd with Pb in study groups shows a positive association in Cigarette and Cigarette +hookah smokers. The Pb was a positive association with age in Cigarette smokers and invers correlation in hookah and Cigarette + hookah smokers, the correlation with BMI shows inverse association in hookah and non- Cigarette smokers, positive association between Pb and BMI in Cigarette + hookah smokers and non-smokers. Conclusion: the current study concluded that Cigarette smoking causes elevation in Cd and Pb than hookah, the individuals used Cigarette and hookah show slight elevation in Pb than in non-smokers.

Keywords: Cadmium, Lead level, smokers, Cigarette, hookah. ,


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