History of Medicine


An Open Access Journal

Collaborative Governance for Child-Friendly Cities in Indonesia: Policy Analysis and Issues in Cirebon City, West Java

Siti Khumayah
Soleh Suryadi
Didi Turmudzi
Makbul Mansyur


The Child-Friendly City Development Policy requires the planned, comprehensive, sustainable, and synergistic involvement of the government, community, mass media, business and academia. Therefore, collaborative governance is needed to make KLA implementation more productive, effective, and efficient. This study aims to describe and analyze the development of KLA with collaborative governance model in Cirebon City, where since the enactment of the Regional Regulation on the matter in 2017 until 2020, it only obtained the Madya predicate and in 2022 it went back to the Pratama predicate, out of five levels of KLA predicates, namely Pratama, Madya, Nindya, Utama and Kota Layak Anak. Another goal of this research is to analyze inhibiting factors and the appropriate collaboration model for KLA development. This research uses qualitative descriptive method with a case study approach. Through this method, the research object will be described in depth based on facts and data collected, which will reveal the effectiveness of collaborative governance and the appropriate collaboration model for KLA development. The results show that the collaborative governance of KLA development in Cirebon City is not effective, therefore, it has not obtained the predicate of a child-friendly city. None of the KLA assessment clusters have reached the maximum score, except for the basic welfare and health of children. In addition, collaborative governance of KLA development in Cirebon City is known to be ineffective and has not involved all stakeholders. The causes of ineffective KLA development in Cirebon City are administrative and institutional factors, such as the lack of data availability, the absence of partnership documentation and recording, the lack of KLA profiles, and the absence of new regional regulations regarding KLA. The other causes are weak collaboration among stakeholders, which is characterized by low commitment, lack of innovation, the absence of the Indonesian Child-Friendly Company Association (APSAI), and the lack of training and certification for the convention on children’s rights. Another factor is the fulfillment of KLA assessment indicators, such as the lack of children's participation, the availability of child-friendly schools, the limited public facilities for children, the suboptimal implementation of smoke-free areas, the high stunting rate, and the suboptimal child-friendly media. Therefore, the pentahelix collaboration model in the integrative framework for collaborative governance is appropriate because all stakeholders can collaborate as equal partners, from defining the problem, planning the program, to implementation. This research produces novelty about the importance of media involvement in collaborative governance because it can be an effective means for socialization and education about KLA development. On the other hand, the mass media, especially social media, can obstruct KLA development if its content is uncontrolled and contrary to child protection efforts.

Keywords: Collaborative governance, Child-Friendly City Development ,


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I.M. Sechenov

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