Nikolay A. Zharkin,
Tatyana G. Semikhova
Volgograd State Medical University
1, Pavshikh Bortsov Sq., Volgograd 400131, Russia
The caesarean section is one of the most commonly performed surgical operations in the 21st century. Throughout the history of the abdominal delivery method, its various components (indications, surgical techniques, tools and materials, anesthesia and perioperative support) have undergone significant changes. The positive results of caesarean sections have influenced
obstetrical indicators as a whole. However, a steady tendency towards increasing the frequency of its use indicates an unjustified expansion of the indications for this type of operation, which allows us to view the current situation as a worldwide problem. This is due to the negative effect of unnecessary surgical delivery on the health of mother and child. Changes in the indications for the operation and the techniques for using it have made it possible, on the one hand, to significantly reduce reproductive losses, and on the other hand, to preform the operation without due cause. The immediate and long-term negative consequences for both mothers and children born by caesarean section are presented. To address them, the European Board and College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology suggests developing a strategy for optimizing caesarean delivery based on M. Robson’s 10-stage classification, accumulating and comparing the findings and studying those countries where low maternal and neonatal mortality rates are combined with low caesarean delivery rates.
Keywords: history of medicine, history of obstetrics, abdominal delivery, surgical technique, immediate and long-term results of caesarean section