Sergey D. Batoev
FSAEI HE I.M. Sechenov First MSMU MOH Russia (Sechenov University)
8 Trubetskaya St., building 2, Moscow 119991, Russia
The article deals with the moments related to the birth and development of military medicine in the pre-revolutionary Trans-Baikal region (Transbaikalia). The first military formations with permanent dislocation in this region appeared in the first half of the 18th century (from the moment of the final consolidation of the territory of Transbaikalia for the Russian Empire). The Trans-Baikal region was interesting from the point of view of the further development of trade relations and the protection of borders. The Transbaikalian Cossack Host was organized from the local population in the middle of the 19th century to ensure the protection of lengthy external borders and to perform internal service. The military class and the civilian population of the Trans-Baikal region needed accessible and qualified medical care. For this region, mortality from infectious diseases, as well as high maternal and infant mortality, remained relevant, which significantly worsened the complicated demographic situation. The social and economic development of Transbaikalia was hindered by a number of objective reasons. Soldiers and members of their families first began to receive medical care at the Nerchinsk Mining Hospital (Eastern Transbaikalia) at the end of the first half of the 18th century. The first hospital schools, which provided medical personnel training, were organized during the same period. The strategic importance of the region made it necessary to develop the military medical service. So, battalion hospitals first were opened in the Western Transbaikalia (in the second half of the 18th century), and then in the Eastern Transbaikalia (in the middle of the 19th century). In 1851 a military infirmary was established in the city of Chita due to the formation of the Transbaikalian Cossack Host. Six years later the hospital was converted into a military semi-hospital. Taking into account the peculiarities of this region, the Regulation on mandatory variola vaccination was adopted for the Transbaikalian Cossack Host in 1853. However, there were significant shortcomings in the organization of the military medical service in Transbaikalia. The main mistake was the formation of a medical network without considering the geographic and socio-economic characteristics of the region. In general, the formation of military medicine in Transbaikalia became a necessary condition for the further development of this remote region of Russia.
Keywords: history of medicine, Transbaikalia, military medicine, provision of medical care, medical services for military personnel, hospital school, infirmary, hospital