Yana G. Grigoryan
FSAEI HE I.M. Sechenov First MSMU MOH Russia (Sechenov University)
8 Trubetskaya St., building 2, Moscow 119991, Russia
In this article the case study method as a training strategy for teaching the history of medicine is discussed. The author views the history of medicine as an interdisciplinary knowledge system offering a variety of intellectual challenges that require the use of a wide range of research tools. Pertinent methodological issues concerning the place of the history of medicine and significance in the system of higher medical education are uncovered. The author identifi es current approaches to the teaching of the history of medicine that aid the fullest development of students’ professional thinking and development of their personal qualities. The options for applying the case study method to the material of the training course are analyzed. The case method is presented as an eff ective tool in an interactive, personality-oriented learning strategy aimed at developing critical thinking and communication skills in the history of medicine study process. The strengths and weaknesses of the case study method as a pedagogical technique used to analyze issues in the history of the formation and development of medical knowledge are identified. The experience of using the case study method in teaching the history of medicine is described, its main function being to teach students to find ways to solve unstructured problems. A methodological approach in the search for a multiplicity of solutions to the tasks presented allows us to create an intentionally planned dialectical situation, the purpose of which is to develop methods for organizing discussions to choose the best possible outcomes. Cognitive activity, in this case, takes the form of a desire to analyze knowledge, beliefs and thinking on the basis of a conceptual model of purposeful activity with special attention to the study of cause-eff ect relationships in the history of the development of medicine as a science. The problems, possibilities and prospects of using this method are discussed, as well as its importance in the formation of research and professional competencies for medical students.
Keywords: case study techniques, case method, case studies, medical education, history of medicine, practical-oriented approach, search and research technology, training strategy