Аlexander G. Chuchalin,
Irina V. Siluyanova
FSBEI HE N.I. Pirogov RNRMU MOH Russia
1 Ostrovityanova St., Moscow 117997, Russia
The existence of canonized doctors in cultural history allows us to affirm the reality of the “holy doctors” phenomenon in the history of medicine. The main distinguishing feature of this phenomenon is the principle of the physician’s moral relation to the suffering person. The authors examine the logical and ethical connection between the principles of medical ethics of the historically first and last in the succession of holy doctors: St. Luke (1st century) and the Righteous Passion-Bearer Yevgeny the Physician (Ye.S. Botkin, 20th century). Despite the time frame dividing them, the commonality revealed in their positions is regarded as the historical and logical basis for recognizing the practical significance of the moral principles of medical activity, including for modern medicine. These moral principles include: the principle of charity and rendering assistance to the suffering person; willingness to provide medical care in different situations; the principle of justice; unselfishness and gratuitous service; the principle of the dominance of the interests of a sick person. The distinguishing features of these principles is of great theoretical importance for elucidating the position of the Federal Law On the Fundamentals of Health Care of Citizens of the Russian Federation (No. 323-FZ of November 21, 2011) on the need to “observe ethical and moral standards” in carrying out activities in the field of protecting the health of Russian citizens.
Keywords: history of medicine, medical ethics, moral principles, holiness, Ye.S. Botkin