Olga V. Tereshkina
Tula State University, Medical Institute, Tula
128, Boldin St., Tula 300028, Russia
Materials are presented on the work of P.P. Belousov – a representative of the sanitary-hygienic medical field in Russia at the end of the 19th century, the first sanitary doctor of Tula, and a student of F.F. Erisman. Tula’s unsatisfactory sanitary condition at that time was largely due to the fact that this city was an industrial center and it housed a large number of factories. The author shows how Belousov’s work dealt with various monitoring issues in housing and communal services, food hygiene, school sanitation and veterinary spheres. The author pays special attention to one of Belousov’s leading areas of practical and research work as a sanitary doctor in Tula – cleaning the city of sewage. This was one of the most pressing issues in sanitation and hygiene for Russian cities of the 19th century. Belousov’s goal was the creation of a city system for the removal and disposal of sewage that met the requirements of modern hygiene science. He sought to organize sewage disposal in Tula in the most expedient, cost-effective way, using local, readily available resources. To do this, he combined modern approaches and particular features of sanitation in large Russian cities, as well as the results of experimental construction of sewage disposal fields in Tula. The data obtained by Belousov was used in his thesis “On the current situation and the immediate tasks for the sewerage system of Russian cities”, which was written under the guidance of F.F. Erisman. The article contains information characterizing both positive and negative aspects of this experience. The author notes Belousov’s personal and professional qualities, which allowed him in a short period of time to make an invaluable contribution to improving the sanitary situation in Tula.
Keywords: history of medicine, Tula, P.P. Belousov, sanitary situation, sewage disposal