Sergey A. Filin
Plehanov Russian University of Economic
The author examines the evolutionary phases of the European healthcare systems and veterinary medicine in Mongolia in the 19th-20th centuries. He attempts to outline the background and the fundamental moments in the transition from Mongoliaʼs traditional system of providing the population with medical aid, which was based on the principles of Tibetan and folk medicine, to the European type. The article concludes that the new Mongolian healthcare system was established in consideration of the achievements of national medicine, combining traditional and European principles of providing the population with medical aid.
In the ﬁ rst quarter of the 20th century most of the Mongolian population suﬀ ered from socially signiﬁ cant diseases, which resulted in a drastic decline of the indigenous population and the deterioration of social-hygienic conditions. Traditional Mongolian healing methods were ineﬀ ective in treating venereal and other extremely dangerous infectious diseases, which had become epidemic (in the cities at least 40% of the population had contracted syphilis and at least 50% had contracted gonorrhea). Russian doctors, who were employing the latest medical breakthroughs, were able to cure the Mongolian population of venereal diseases and chickenpox. As a result of the fruitful cooperation with the Russian specialists Mongolia established a European healthcare system, also using the achievements of Tibetan medicine. Together with the establishment of the European healthcare system Mongolia also undertook steps to create a modern veterinary service, whose breakthroughs were supposed to protect the people from animal-transmitted diseases.
Keywords: history of healthcare, veterinary medicine, the Mongolian populationʼs recovery, Tibetan medicine