Sergey N. Puzin1,2, Sergey B. Shevchenko2, Leonid A. Gridin2, Marina A. Shurgaya1, Olga V. Goncharova2
1 FSAEI HE I.M. Sechenov First MSMU MOH Russia (Sechenov University)
2 FSBEI FPE RMAPgE MOH Russia
The authors consider the main milestones in the formation of the Russian social and medical assessment service in the 20th century. The Soviet government’s ﬁ rst decrees addressed the issue of workers’ social security. A welfare system that addressed all those in need and did not exploit the work of others was set out as the ﬁrst step. The second stage in the development of the occupational medical assessment service (1918‒1929) was associated with the transition to state social security. Later, in the third and fourth stages, a range of individuals entitled to social security in instances of disability was determined, as well as an improved form of management for the expert assessment service. During World War II and in the post-war years – the fourth stage, 1941‒1955 – medical commissions were additionally required to determine a connection between front line service and disability cases and issue recommendations on the training and employment of people with disabilities. From 1956‒1984, in the ﬁ fth stage, medical commissions became permanent organizations. During this period disability causes were deﬁ ned. Increasing the quality of assessment requirements in the early 1970s required the training and continuing education of medical expert commissions’ members. The organizational structures of medical commissions became more complicated and the organizational and methodological leadership of the bodies performing labor medical assessments was improved. The sixth stage, from 1995 to the present day, saw the formation of the social and medical assessment and rehabilitation system in modern Russia. In 1995, a modern concept of disabilities was developed and the institution of social and medical assessment services was formalized in legislation.
Keywords: disability, assessment services, social security, disability groups