P.M. Bogopolsky1, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Senior Researcher at the Department of Scientific Programs and Staff Training
D.A. Balalykin2, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
Chairman at the Department of the History of Medicine, National History and Culturology
1B.V. Petrovsky National Research Center of Surgery, Moscow (Russian Federation);
2I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, The Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation)
The article is devoted to discussion of a number of controversial issues in the history of cardiology and cardiac surgery. The authors substantiate the view that cardiology is an older and extensive science, while cardiac surgery is a new and highly specialized discipline. It can be noted that the impetus for the emergence of cardiac surgery in the first quarter of the 20th century was provided by cardiology when it revealed the inability to conservatively treat some serious heart diseases, compared to the expected benefits from the use of surgical techniques based on manually fixing basic mechanical obstructions to cardiac functioning. The origin and development of cardiology in Russia and abroad took place almost simultaneously, in contrast to cardiac surgery. While the birth of cardiac surgery in Europe and the United States can be attributed to the beginning of the 1910s, in the Soviet Union cardiac surgery originated in the late 1940s as part of the rapidly developing thoracic surgery, and was designated a special field of clinical medicine in the 1950s and 1960s, largely based on the achievements of cardiology. It is noted that by this point, domestic cardiology had already gone through foundation and formation periods, and had entered a period of development. It should be emphasized that the history of cardiology and cardiac surgery in Russia and the world should not be seen only in the context of scientific and technological progress and advances in medical science, but also taking into account a number of important socio-economic factors. The authors invite readers to exchange ideas that can contribute to a more complete picture of the development of cardiology and cardiac surgery as an independent field of clinical medicine.
Keywords: сardiology, cardiac surgery, history of origin and development, interaction, periodization