O.A. Trefilova, Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, Associate Professor
I.A. Rozanov, 6th-year student of the Medical-prophylactic Faculty
I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, The Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation)
The article is devoted to F.F. Yanitsky, a representative of the Russian intelligentsia, a zemstvo (district) physician, privy councilor, doctor of medicine, chief of the army medical unit for the Southwestern Front, military field surgeon, a participant in the Russo-Turkish (1877‒1878), Russo-Japanese wars (1904‒1905), and the First World War, epidemiologist and author of scientific works in the field of medicine. Yanitsky’s approach to disease, patients and treatments сoincides with N.I. Pirogov’s ideas concerning the need for prevention and sanitation improvement, as well as concepts of other prominent doctors at that time. Yanitsky constantly improved his knowledge and professional skills. In 1892, he was seconded for two years to the Imperial Military Medical Academy to write a doctoral thesis, and in 1894, he was recognized as Academy’s doctor of medicine and received the title of military surgeon. As an epidemiologist, Yanitsky took part in expeditions to combat epidemics of diphtheria, cholera, plague, typhoid, gastro-intestinal diseases, and typhus. He was awarded orders, medals and distinctions for outstanding military service and for his contribution to the fight against infectious diseases. The authors have paid particular attention to the influence of the political context on the formation of the views of Yanitsky, whose course in life was inseparable from the history of the country. The article deals with his family and cultural ties, social views, and attitudes to career and political events on the cusp of two eras. Documents from the archive of Solzhenitsyn House for the Russian Diaspora have been used.
Keywords: F.F. Yanitsky, zemstvo medicine, military field surgery, the First World War