V.V. Romanova, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor
I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, the Ministry of Health
of the Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation)
The formation and activities of the Red Cross in the Amur Governorate General, which was established in 1884, are studied on the basis of archival documents. The complex natural and climatic conditions, inadequate health systems and the high mortality rate, proximity to disadvantaged countries in epidemiological terms, as well as the difficult military and political situation in the region, all led to the need for the development of the Red Cross movement in the Russian Far East. However, the lack of attention from the Main Department of the Russian Red Cross (RRC), and especially the Far Eastern society, led to a relatively low level of activity of its local organizations. However, in this period the first community of Sisters of Mercy – in Blagoveshchensk and Khabarovsk – was created. They operated small hospitals. During military conflicts in the Far East (the Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895, the Boxer Rebellion in China in 1900 and the Russian-Japanese war of 1904–1905), the Red Cross sent teams to the area from European Russia. It was also a period of significant spread of epidemics. Local RCC branches as much as possible organized medical and health education, and engaged in collecting funds for the needs of the organization. These activities were not carried out on a large scale, but it was an undoubted contribution to medical and social assistance on the eastern edge of Russia.
Keywords: Russian Red Cross Society, donations, Sister of Mercy Society, Far East, Amur Governorate General