М.Y. Chernichenko, Director of the Museum of the History of Medicine
I.M. Sechenov First State Moscow Medical University, The Ministry of Health
of the Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation)
The article deals with the participation of professors and graduates of the Imperial Moscow University faculty of medicine in the development of zemstvo district medicine in post-reform Russia. The focus is on the work of the founder of domestic hygiene F.F. Erisman, the founder of health statistics P.I. Kurkin, state and public figure A.I. Shingarev, writer A.P. Chekhov, the founder of national gynecology in zemstvo district hospitals V.F. Snegirev, as well as focusing on scientific research and discussion of zemstvo district medicine experiences and challenges at the Russian doctors’ congresses. The development of the ideas of zemstvo district medicine at the congresses of the N.I. Pirogov Memorial Society of Russian Doctors is analyzed – in particular, in the public medicine section. It examines in detail the value of the “Program to obtain information on the status of zemstvo district medicine in its gradual development” (1889), which resulted in the publication of seven volumes of the “Zemstvo District Medical Collection” summarizing the experience of zemstvo district medical facilities for 25 years, and later an important study by E.A. Osipov, P.I. Kurkin and I.V. Popov, “Russian Zemstvo District Medicine” (1899). It is concluded that the professors and graduates of the medical faculty of the Imperial Moscow University made an outstanding contribution to the organization and development of the zemstvo district medicine, which became one of the major achievements of Russian medicine – and which had no analogues in the world.
Keywords: Russian empire, zemstvo, zemstvo district medicine, Moscow University, medical faculty, history of medicine