The Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow
The article is devoted to Old Testament medicine and determination of the value of the history of medicine in the development of modern philosophy of science. The problems of health and healing in the Old Testament era were reflected in the ancient texts of the Bible and the Talmud. An emphasis is placed on the connection between religious instruction and observance of laws relating to the human body, health and attitudes toward disease, elaborated by the entire biblical tradition. The concepts of ritual purity and personal hygiene are discussed in detail, especially health practices in connection with therapeutic agents, which were used by biblical healers.
Keywords: medical knowledge, regulations, prohibitions, ritual purity, hygiene, punishment, the Bible