The author oﬀers a “religio-philosophical system” as an important factor, which played a determining role in the development of natural science and medicine in the pre-historic period (prior to the beginning of the Scientiﬁc Revolution of the XVII century). This approach allows us to analyze the history of medicine in the general context of the development of natural science in continuous correlation with the occurring sociocultural processes, which inﬂuence the way of thinking of the scholars and forming of their research program. It gives us an opportunity to study each of the historical periods of the development and accumulation of theoretical and practical knowledge in the ﬁeld of medicine from the position of systematic approach. The signiﬁcance of a speciﬁc religio-philosophical system from the point of view of the historical scientiﬁc research is deﬁned by how it responds to the question about the cognition of the material world and human (as a part of this world) and the ability to acquire an evidence-based knowledge. On the example of medicine of the Ancient Egypt and Galen’s heritage we indicate the importance of the “religio-philosophical system” for the development of the history of medicine during the pre-scientiﬁc period as a part of natural science.
Keywords: history of natural science, history of medicine, religio-philosophical system, natural philosophy of Galen