The paper oﬀers a new perspective for studying the history of pediatrics. A comprehensive, systematic and consistent analysis of the history of pediatric science and practice suggests an interdisciplinary approach and the use of sources describing not merely medical problems, but also legal status of children including those experiencing life’s hardships, as well as studies in philosophy, psychology, education and sociology of childhood, history of culture and literature. Based on the study of the history of pediatrics in Russia one can distinguish ﬁve periods in its development with constitutive criteria for each period which are the following: the legal status of the child, the level of knowledge about the sick and healthy child; available literature on pediatrics; the emergence of medical institutions for children; the state of pediatric education; the development of scientiﬁc pediatric associations; government and public attitude to the problem of child medical care, and involvement into international child studies. The author has also considered the evolution of state and public understanding of rights and needs of the child relating to health protection, medical treatment and disease prevention, social and psychological care and education in the context of historical changes; speciﬁc professional activities in corresponding ﬁelds have been presented.
Keywords: pediatrics, history, attitude to the child, child body studies, child protection and healthcare institutions