The Crimean War has been considered as one of the ﬁrst World Wars because of the number of great empires and the diversity of the troops involved. Each empire, such as the Russians, the Ottomans, the British and the French, mobilized soldiers from various ethnic groups. Unfortunately also famous for the number of casualties, this war marked also on each side a better understanding of medical needs on the battleﬁeld, as well as of the care of the wounded in the hospitals. Florence Nightingale gave the signal to the improvement of material conditions of the wounded, through a radical change in the conception of care and started the training of lay nurses dedicated to care at the bedside. This creation of the professional nurse echoes on the Russian side with the participation of female health oﬃcers Under Pirogoﬀ ‘s guidance and responsibility, at the time of the initiation of medical courses for women. On the Turkish side, an international medical society gathered doctors working on the front, which survived after the war and contributed actively to the discussion of the international medical résolutions, in the second part of the nineteenth century, for the management.
Keywords: international public health, Crimean War, Russsia, Ottoman Empire